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Scalewatcher Independent Research


Mechanical and Design Engineering
Laboratory test of Scalewatcher electronic device
in simulated domestic hot water system

University of Portsmouth



  "Initial results indicated that the scale on the heating coil was reducing in thickness"

"Within 7 days the extra scale added during the 20 days without Scalewatche
r had been removed "

"The final results indicate that Scalewatcher is capable of removing freshly built up scale from the heating coil of an indirect domestic cylinder."

"The results indicate that at the above temperatures Scalewatcher succeeded in reducing the scale thickness and prevented further build up on the heat exchanger.
View of University of Portsmouth  
  Vincent Hogan signature

University of Portsmouth
Anglesea Road

To read the full research reports open these Adobe Documents





Physical Water Treatment for the Mitigation of Mineral Fouling in Cooling-Tower Water


Note: PWT is the generic term referring to the physical treatment of water with electric fields as utilized by the patented Scalewatcher electronic descaler technology.


1. The present study proposed the mechanism of a physical water treatment (PWT). The PWT produces a bulk precipitation in water. As the solubility of treated water decreases inside heat transfer equipment, the tiny particulates produced by the PWT grow in size, thus preventing crystallization fouling. Since the particulates tend to deposit on the heat transfer surface, it is essential for flow to be able to remove the soft sludge coating from the heat transfer surface.

2. The present study conducted a number of experimental tests to validate the above hypothesis. The results of fouling resistances obtained in a heat transfer test section clearly demonstrated the benefit of the PWT when the PWT device is configured at an optimum condition.

4. The surface tension of water samples was measured, and it was found that the PWT reduced the surface tension by approximately 8%.

5. The dye-drop experiment suggests that fewer reactions occurred between the dye and mineral ions in water in the treated water, supporting the bulk precipitation hypothesis.


This paper reports the work carried out at Drexel University under the support and supervision of ASHRAE Technical Committee (Water Treatment) during the period of September 2000 and May 2002. The final report is available from ASHRAE (, ASHRAE Research Project 1155-TRP.


To read the full Scalewatcher electronic descaler research report open this Adobe Document:

PWT study by Drexel University.pdf